Hey, everyone. This is Syawish from the channel
Al Muqaddimah and today I’m going to show you the family tree of Ottoman sultans. I’ll
be using Matt’s Asian Royal Family Trees chart, which is available as a poster from the website
UsefulCharts.com. The Ottoman Empire started in in what is today
Turkey but eventually expanded to include Egypt, Iraq, and Arabia on one side and Bulgaria,
Ukraine, and Hungary on the other. In this video, we’ll be looking at every Ottoman ruler
from the foundation of the dynasty in the 14th century, all the way down to fall of
the dynasty after World War One. We’ll even address the question of who would be Ottoman
sultan today. Music
So, the Ottoman dynasty is shown in the color red
here. The dynasty began with Osman but before we talk about him, let’s talk about the
Middle East in general before the rise of the Ottomans. After the death of Prophet Muhammad,
Muslims had various caliphs. First there was the Umayyad Dynasty and then, the Abbasid
Dynasty. But slowly they declined in power and became figureheads. At that point, in
the 11th century, Persia was taken over by a group of Turks from the Eurasian steppes
called the Seljuqs and The Abbasid Caliphs became puppets in their hands.
It was the Seljuqs who defeated the Byzantines in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After
that, they moved a considerable number of Turks into Anatolia. But overtime, the Seljuqs
themselves declined in Persia but an offshoot of the dynasty survived in Anatolia which
was called the Sultanate of Rum. This means the Sultanate of Rome because the area they
ruled over was previously ruled by the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.
In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded and the Sultanate of Rum disintegrated with many
tribes rising up to carve out as much land as they could. One of those tribes was the
tribe of Bey Osman. He ruled a very small realm so, he cannot be called a king or emperor
or Sultan. His title is usually Bey which simply means “Lord”. However, he supposedly
had a famous dream which predicted the rise of his descendants. I should also point out
that his mother, Halime Hatun was a actually a great-granddaughter of the last Sultan of
Rum, so there’s an important connection between the two major Turkic dynasties through her.
Osman was called Otman by the Greeks and it’s from that version of his name that we get
the word “Ottoman”. The start of the dynasty is usually put at 1299. Osman was succeeded
by his son, Orhan who expanded the realm further. He married a Byzantine princess, Theodora
with whom he had a son who’s not on this chart. That son married another Byzantine
Princess. Orhan conquered Gallipoli and put the first Ottoman footprint in Europe.
His son, Murad I expanded the young sultanate further into Europe. He died during the Battle
of Kosovo. His son, Bayezid I “the Thunderbolt” tried to take Constantinople but couldn’t.
He was later defeated in the Battle of Ankara by Timur the Lame or as I call him over at
my channel, Timur the Jerk. He was captured and the empire broke apart and was slowly
put back together. Murad II consolidated the empire and abdicated in favor of his young
son, Muhammad or Mehmed II in 1444. But he was called back two years later to lead the
army against a Crusading army at the Second Battle of Kosovo. After he died, Mehmed II
came back to power. He boldly decided to do what no one had been able to do. He decided
to conquer Constantinople. He did that in 1453. He conquered Constantinople, made it
the new capital and took the title of “the Conqueror” or Muhammad al-Fatih. His son,
Bayezid II is famous for having accepted the Jewish refugees who were kicked out of Spain.
Then, after a civil war, his son Selim Yavuz or Selim the Grim expanded the empire into
Asia and Africa. He conquered Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In Egypt, the Abbasid
caliph was the figurehead from whom Selim took the title of Caliph hence he became the
first Ottoman caliph. Also, the first Caliph who wasn’t from Prophet Muhammad’s tribe.
His famous son was Suleiman I or Suleiman the Magnificent or Suleiman the Lawgiver.
He’s famous for his rivalry with the Habsburgs, especially Charles V, another great Monarch
of Europe. He’s also famous for falling in love with his concubine Roxelana who was
known as Hurrem Sultan. He broke from Ottoman tradition and married her. Hurrem became a
powerful woman in her own right at the palace. He reigned for a long period of time and had
his son Mustafa killed because he was afraid of Mustafa was plotting against him. Suleiman
reigned over the Ottoman Empire at the peak of its power. He was succeeded by Selim II,
the son of Hurrem Sultan. Suleiman’s daughter Mihrimah was married to perhaps the most famous
grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire. Grand vizier was sort of like the Prime Minister.
It was actually during the reign of Murad III that the empire controlled the most area
but it had some serious problems. The next significant Sultan was Ahmed I who built the
Blue Mosque in Turkey. Upto this point, you can see that the succession was very nicely
going from father to son. That’s because unlike European Monarchies, the Islamic ones
had a lot of heirs due to polygamy being the norm. Whereas in European dynasties often
the king would die without a male heir, causing a crisis, the Ottomans usually had a few too
many heirs who would also cause a crisis in the form of a civil war. To avoid this, the
Ottoman adopted the tradition of fratricide. After the death of the reigning Sultan, his
sons would try to secure power. Whichever one came out on top, would kill his remaining
brothers. The dynasty, hence, was pretty truncated. Ahmed I was the sultan who decided to do away
with this tradition. Probably because he was young and didn’t have any children of his
own and if he had died, he wouldn’t have any heirs. It was during his reign that we
saw the rise of Kosem Sultan, the most powerful woman in the Ottoman court EVER. She rose
as the Imperial Consort or Haseki Sultan and became the favorite concubine of Ahmed. However,
she was banished after his death. Ahmed had died fairly young. After him, his brother
Mustafa I became the sultan. At this point, we start seeing why fratricide,
while disgusting, was a brilliant way to ensure stability. Mustafa was overthrown in favor
of Osman II, Ahmed’s son but then he was killed by his janissaries and Mustafa was
installed again. Then two more sons of Ahmed ruled one after the other. First, Murad IV
who was very young at the time. Kosem became the regent and effectively ruled the entire
empire. She famously attended court from behind a curtain, an unprecedented move in the Islamic
World. Even when Murad came of age, she still continued to rule WITH him, if not IN HIS
PLACE. When Murad died, he was succeeded by Ibrahim who is generally considered to have
been mentally imbalanced. He was unpopular and eventually banished Kosem who then plotted
and had him killed. Then his young son, Mehmed IV was installed whom Kosem controlled as
well until his own mother intervenes and plotted to have Kosem killed which she succeeded in
doing. For various reasons, the empire was declining.
It was losing wars and territory. Various grandsons and great-grandson of Ahmed come
to power during this era until we come to Mahmud II.
Mahmud II led various reforms to the Ottoman Empire. Most noticeably, the clothing of the
Sultan and the officials changed. The Ottoman dynasty then split into two directions with
Abdulmejid I and then his brother Abdulaziz. It was Abdulmejid’s son Sultan Mehmed V
who oversaw the empire during the First World War when the Ottoman Empire sided with Germany
and lost. At this point, Mustafa Kemal founded the Republic of Turkey. The Sultanate was
abolished in 1922 but the caliphate remained until Abdulmejid II who was the last caliph
was exiled in 1924 ending the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic Caliphate.
As you can see on this chart, there are six different lines of the Ottoman dynasty that
still exist so, if the Empire still existed, one of the members of those lines would be
the sultan. The family is now called Osmanglu and has members all over the world. They were
banned from entering Turkey but that ban was later lifted. The current head of the house
is one Dundar Ali Osman. He was born in 1930 and would mostly likely be succeeded by his
brother Harun Osmanoglu. The head of house is usually the oldest member of the dynasty
so, it can go back and forth between the surviving lines of the family.
So, that was the family tree of the Ottoman Dynasty. If you’re interested in learning
more about Islamic history, check out my channel Al Muqaddimah by clicking the link in the
description. Or if you want to buy the poster shown in this video, you can head over to
Usefulcharts.com Thanks for watching.