Real DOCTOR reacts to CELLS AT WORK! // Episode 4 // “Food poisoning”

hi my name’s ed hope I’m a junior doctor in the UK and welcome to sick notes my channel where we look at hospitals human body and I share some my experiences of being a doctor that sounds good you can subscribe and be part of our lovely community here on YouTube today I’m going to be continuing my look at the fantastic show cells at work so this is episode four okay so this episode is called food poisoning which is where we eat some food that’s been handled or stored or prepared badly and it’s got lots of bacteria that’s able to grow in it or maybe some parasites or even some viruses once they get into our body our body to text them and kind of what’s to flush the system out so we get lots of vomiting and lots of diarrhea we’ve probably all had some kind of food poisoning at some point in our lives I remember when I had a sort of raw sausage in Eastern Europe I had a pretty nasty bout so I’m looking forward to find out exactly what’s happened to my body during this episode so here we see the stomach and it’s represented kind of like a volcano with the lava being the acid which is a really nice analogy because the whole point of the acid in the stomach is to kick off the digestion process and also kill any of these nasties that might just be in food normally like some bacteria and viruses and other things like that but obviously this acid could potentially damage our own cells in our body so the stomach has a specialized sort of layered lining that we call the gastric mucosa gastric is just a medical term for anything to do with the stomach one of these layers produces a chemical called bicarbonate which is an alkaline type chemical therefore will neutralize the acid that comes close to the lining there for protecting the cells of the stomach but still allowing the center point to be acidic to do its job knowing about the stomach mucosa is really important because it can be eroded away with certain infections and medications as well and once that’s eroded away the acid will directly attack the cells in the stomach and will lead to stomach all served nasty condition and the rock formation we see here in the volcano is not by a mistake because the stomach also has these ridges so in biology whenever we see these kind of Ridge like structure it’s for increasing the surface area so in this example be increasing the surface area of absorption of the food in the stomach as well these ridges also enable the stomach to stretch so when we’ve eaten a lot of food the stomach can stretch up and when the summer isn’t being used it can shred out as well so this white blood cell has identified a new germ here the germ is the layman’s term for any disease-causing organism so it can encompass a virus or bacteria fungus and parasite as well the medical term we use is a pathogen path meaning disease and gen anything that generates it so pathogen something that causes a disease and we’ve met a new white blood cell here as well I’m not quite sure what this one is but I guess we’ll find out [Music] I’m not quite sure what that bacteria spinning thing was supposed to represent but our neutrophil has come to the rescue so this other white blood cell wasn’t as effective as getting this bacteria so maybe that’s a clue as to what they might be that makes sense that this cell is in a sinner fill another white blood cell and that’s why it’s not very good at anyway bacteria it’s got a very specialized role it’s job is to deal with parasites or much larger pathogens than things like bacteria and viruses they are also really important in clinical medicine because these are the cells that react inappropriately to certain things that give us an allergic reaction come on huggy cue da so as pointed out by the neutrophil the cinephile is there they’re very closely related so it kind of fits in the family tree we’ve been developing over these episodes I’m kind of running out of room but let me show you quickly so here is our diagram from before so we have our stem cell or myeloid progenitor cell some of the other cells we’ve met so far so the red blood cell the megakaryocytes that produces the platelets we have our dendritic cell and we have our macrophage as well and here represents our neutrophil as we said the assignor fill is very closely related to all of these cells but particularly the neutrophil so here we have our sinner Phil joining the family tree so the acidophiles getting up a little bit of bullying from the other cells you know obviously what we talked about she’s not designed to attack this type of pathogen so just wonder if that’s some kind of foreshadowing in terms of what her motivation will be when she overreacts to analogy the fact that she feels like she’s doing a bad job here so when she sees something she had an inappropriate like allergic reaction I wonder if that’s gonna be so that plays out probably not [Music] what on earth is that ed Titus Vibrio never heard of it although I could kind of work out what it does Fieldy gives me what’s exactly got food poisoning but also enter means anything in your gut itis means inflammation Vibrio no idea what that means but this is where I can learn things for themselves at work so a bacteria that normally resides in seawater so probably not something that caused my food poisoning yeah it is did Europe from that sausage consuming seawater contaminated by this bacteria can lead to contagious enteritis Vibrio food poisoning and company by severe stomach pain and alike well card it makes sense so you see these bacteria have these tails as well we saw that in the first episode these are the flagella so these basic sensory organs and involved in motility as well so how the bacteria can get around [Music] so Jesus do that can you stop yeah that’s absolutely right generally when we have an infection of the gut the gut is in a way considered outside of the body we have lots of defensive mechanisms to stop anything getting into the bloodstream so as this t-cell is saying here we wouldn’t expect anything in the gut unless it’s a real kind of severe thing to then sort of spread in to the body so we did not expect to see a bacteria eat a neutrophils so in reality neutrophils about ten times the size of a bacteria so it’s actually the neutrophil that’s more likely to phagocytose so eat the bacteria although maybe this one’s particular big long because I don’t know much about it although in previous episodes were obviously seeing the bacteria do have lots of kind of defensive mechanisms so maybe this is just demonstrating that in a different way you don’t sit I sense you are oh you know you should know what this annoys a little not so kind okay look so here we meet the basal Phil which is another white blood cell to add to our family let me draw him in so here is our basal Phil no the basal feel is not something I learned a lot about medical school maybe that was just my training but no way it belongs in our family tree it’s very closely related to the neutrophil and the escena field that we saw before and one other cell as well that we briefly saw in this episode by just get a chose to skip it and that is the Marcel now these four cells make up the granular sites what does that mean it means they have these granules in their cytoplasm so these little pockets of chemicals now the JA believe granular sites is when they’re activated so when something around them triggers them off generally by firing a receptor on the cell surface their job is to D granulate and to expel these chemicals from the cell so if these cubes represent our granules within the cell when the cell gets the message it will release these chemicals into the area in the case of basophils this is saying like histamine and this works on the blood vessels so this makes the blood vessels dilate and makes them more leaky which means that more blood flows there and more cells leak out therefore we get more immune cells to the area so that all to do with coordinating the immune response some of these chemicals are also released in degranulation are toxic chemicals things like enzymes that help break down the pathogens [Music] [Applause] site [Music] that’s not a bacteria obviously they put an ad break no good teaser okay it’s a parasite that was probably a bit obvious wasn’t it cause it’s that episode about it’s in a felt it’s and I think Zacchaeus I hope I’m saying that right I’ve never heard of this type of parasite I’m not really adding a lot TV pathogens in this episode this is a parasite found in marine animals so it fits in with the seafood the seafood source of the food poisoning before because we had our enteritis and Vibrio was also from in infected seafood also accelerates the immune system when humans consume a nice aqus infested seafood raw in rare cases they can invade the stomach and the lining of the intestine so we talked about earlier that normally infections are localized within the gut and don’t spread but in the case of this parasite can spread causing food poisoning accompanied by severe stomach pain and vomiting so our body’s having this vomit response because it wants to try and expel the pathogen from the stomach get rid of the stomach contents and I love this depiction of the basophils this kind of mystic spiritual cell it kind of goes along with my lack of understanding of its bit of a mystery to me what it does I love how the Vaser feel when he’s talking about being sick refers to it as a sea of health I will open the forbidden door is exactly what it feels like isn’t it you get this real cloudy head and this sort of deep feeling inside and you kind of transcend onto another level the medical term though for being sick we call emesis [Music] yeah [Music] so I preempted it but here they give a nice explanation of emesis here and yes there is an area of the brain called the vomit center I always get goose pimples at this bit cells at work whether you’re about to see the cell do its job that’s you know the action in it is is so good but then when you think about this is actually happening in the body all the time lots of different white blood cell types and you know combining with the natural defenses of the body to try and eradicate infection and keep you alive it’s pretty cool thing so yeah let’s see what the pills go in store for us [Applause] [Music] cause thank you not that I keep sincerity names Huestis a sauna suit the skinny little cousin very good we talked earlier about the neutrophils being a lot bigger than the bacterial cells so that’s how they’re able to engulf the bacteria and digest it and we caught Vega cytosis so therefore how are we able to do with these kind of pathogens like large parasites that are bigger than ourselves how is are a sinner Phil you know specialized in killing these parasites that let me show you so we’ve met some of these pathogens already but let me just recap them so we have a virus which are incredibly small and not living things they just have a sort of protein capsule and a little bit of a genetic material in them around about a hundred times the size of a virus we have a bacterial cell these are living things but they’ve got very basic area of genetic material that we call the nucleoid and they have a cell wall and other things that we’ve seen before like pill I and a flat yellow roughly two to three times bigger than bacterial cells we have fungal cells and these are the first example of eukaryotic cells that means they have a true nucleus with genetic material and also more developed things called organelles which helped run the cell now this isn’t quite to scale but all of these things can easily be if a Gosai toast by one of our white blood cells now we’ll get on to some slightly bigger organisms one group we called the protozoa so these are kind of single cellular organisms roughly about ten times the size of bacteria again because a eukaryotic they’ve got a true nucleus and true organelles now these kind of vary in size an example of one of these would be something like malaria and then on the other sort of extreme end of size of parasites is a multi cellular organism so something like tapeworms and liver flukes and the a nice a kiss so that’s the parasite we saw in cells at work and these much more like traditional animals that we are used to rather than these sort of small microorganisms so let’s say this is kind of a liver fluke here it’s got a mouth and an anus and a kind of sucker here so it can attach onto things now we can see the problem our white blood cells are no longer big enough to Faygo Saito’s these large pathogens so what do we do about it well this is where degranulation comes in what we talked about earlier so the sinner fill this is our acid in a fill here we’ll attach on to the side of the parasite just like we saw in cells of work actually and you know that pitchfork or that represents the degranulation so release all these toxic chemicals so we have here these toxic chemicals that make up these pocket granules that we talked about earlier and they once they stick on they become activated and this releases these toxic chemicals onto the parasite and digests the parasite [Music] Hey boom that’s one dead parasite so there we have it another cracking episode of cells at work we learn about emesis it’s in the Phils parasites granulocytes and loads of other stuff all wrapped up into this lovely story thank you so much for joining me and being part of this series I’ve been blown away by all the support if if you enjoyed it leave a comment below if there’s anything I missed again let me know in a comment below thanks again for watching and I’ll see you guys soon [Music]

100 thoughts on “Real DOCTOR reacts to CELLS AT WORK! // Episode 4 // “Food poisoning”

  1. doctor: would you like the good new or the bad news first?
    me:the bad news
    doctor:*does naruto run to get files* you have anisakis
    the good new is we just need to watch an anime on how to cure it

  2. perhaps "Vibrio" would sound more familiar when we speak of a more notorious member of its genus: Vibrio cholerae.

  3. 16:41

    Hope: And, boom. That's one dead parasite

    Me: And judging by the eruption, one vomiting human

  4. I just watched one of the episodes about this anime and I just noticed that when a white cell attacks germs defending the red cells… the germs bleed.

  5. Me: Tell me something I don't know!
    Dr. Hope: Without mucus, your stomach would digest itself.
    Me: Really? Tell me something else I don't know!

  6. Finally! Something related to my major Nutrition and Diatetics hahahaha Anisakis is a genus/taxonomic category that ranks high species of parasitic cause by nemotodes/worms from the fish/sea mammals that cause infections to your body or more like in your stomach, esophagus or in your intestines when you eat raws or undercooked seafoods. We called that disease a ANISAKIASIS. Based in our studies, Japanese peoples are the most commonly gets this disease because of carelessly intakes of raw fishes or called Sushi. That's popular and tradition food in Japan! Meeeen! It's delicious so I can't blame them. Hahaha!

  7. Wonder if they will show how parasites work and INVADE us. I ment like hook or heart worms or when tape worms go to OTHER parts of the body, like lungs or brain.

  8. Hope: Gets to ad break in cells at work
    Hope: Of course they'd put an ad break he-
    youtube ad plays

    Coincidence? I THINK NOT

  9. 1:02 WHY would you eat RAW SAUSAGE? That's just asking to get sick.

  10. Anisakis is soooo common here in Japan, once I had one ALIVE in the fish I bought at the super 😱 i avoided that fish for few months after that 😂 (it dies if you cook it though)

  11. this is a japanese show after all. i guess enteritis vibrio are more common in japan because you know, japan are famous for their seafood tradition

  12. I've had a bad gastroenteritis back in the 8th grade and it's not fun. I was 21 hours in the emergency room for observation because they said that it might be appendicitis.

  13. if school was this interesting like this video, there would be Doctors everywhere :O

  14. I like how the Eosinophil weapon of choice is a spear, or a harpoon. Better for larger enemies, as you said parasites were.

  15. Patient:what should i do to handle this virus

    Doctor: watch anime

  16. me and my little brother spent two months in the hospital vomiting over and over again

  17. Damn cell bastards talk shit about my girl eosinophil. 😉

  18. Does anyone notice that Eosinophil's pink outfit matches the real cell eosinophil?

  19. 5:40 WOWOWO! Calm down a second! You just wrote a better episode out of anything. XD

  20. Maybe i should have watched this instead of attack on titans before my immunology exam 🙁

  21. That idea you had about the Eosinophil causing an allergic reaction because mounting frustration with an inferiority complex drives her to do something crazy and dangerous to prove herself…

    That would have been pretty interesting, shame they didn't go that route, though what they did here and for allergies was pretty good anyway.

    Also, apparently that's the only reason why that particular parasite is dangerous in real life. It's dangerous not because it's tough, but because it dies in the worst possible way, getting curb-stomped and then rotting in a really inconvenient place.

  22. "A sea of hellfire that open the forbidden door."
    Taco Tuesdays in a nutshell.

  23. So at the end of the day, Hope becomes more and more of an anime fan the more he watches this. LOL

  24. Did anyone else get a YouTube Ad when there was an ad break in the show

  25. Vibrio is the genus name for multiple species, the most well known of which is Vibrio Cholera. This could be the cause of the enteritis here.

  26. Doctor Hope: “The medical term for being sick, we call Emesis”

    Me: “…and that’s why things that induce vomiting are called Emetics.”

  27. Enteritis Vibrio is similar to the little shit that causes cholera

  28. Between Discovering you and Dr Mike Youtube has become very informative and entertaining xD

  29. That was one good explanation on how white blood cells work!! Thank you it’s like reviewing my cell biology again

  30. All my cells: are dicks to Eisinophil until she saves them from a parasite

    Me: Welp time to go eat some raw fish!

  31. Clever that they'd use Enteritis vibrio, which is a common pathogen in cultures that eat a lot of seafood (see also: Japan) and not E. coli, which is a strong contender for most annoying bacterium in the western world.

  32. No joke, I once had a Doctor who’s name was Dr. Mallet. I think Dr. Hope is little more comforting of a name.

  33. I also love how Eosinophil is pink and Basophil is greenish bluish here just like how it stains with H&E.

  34. Gosh the more episode it gets the more I see why being a doctor is not my thing.
    salute to you man…. XD

  35. Germ:No one can Defeat Me!
    White blood cell:Hold my beer.
    (Btw that is a meme.)

  36. 6:00 Japan has a large amount of coast and a tradition of sushi. So it is propably the kind of bacterium Japenese audience will know better then most europeans. It fits that the parasite was also a seafood specific one.

  37. As soon as you said, 'of course, they but an add break in now' a couple of adverts popped up haha

  38. キャラクターの名前がドクターに予測される唯一のアニメ

  39. I kinda want Dr. Hope to react to Danganronpa or Steins;Gate. Just a fun reaction.

  40. I need to suggest my bio teacher to show us this anime and explain as well like him. I would potentially ace my test on human body.

  41. It's a parasite that can sometimes being Sushi usually it's dead though

  42. I just wanted to point something out but I don't doubt many people have pointed this out already and I just can't see the comments. At around 7:40 you make a point that the Vibrio wouldn't be able to eat U-1146 IRL. When I watched the episode I assumed that this Vibrio was actually made up of the smaller 'underlings' and is therefore a big colony! So when it 'swallowed' U-1146 it just gave him better access to the protected cells in the colony and allowed him to defeat it.

    Of course, the really real reason is just Rule of Cool, but I like my theory as well.

  43. all that anime stuff is getting boring ._. hope there will be more normal stuff again soon

  44. Eoinophil is a white blood newbie

  45. Actually the neutrophils should be the one who eat the bacteria

  46. I love the Basophil. Evidently he is only summoned when the body is in such dramatic danger that a ninja poet is necessary.

  47. 医学のアニメ、生物学のアニメ、物理学のアニメ、化学のアニメを作ってそれが学生の教科書に使えるくらい正確で学生が夢中になるくらい面白いアニメができればいいですね。

  48. I had food poisoning a day ago, I'm still recovering

  49. Thank you for your passion and knowledge. I enjoy this anime. Ive heard of anisakis and they're supposed to be quite nasty.

  50. This is why the white cell on anime have a lot of pockets on his uniform.

  51. And this is how I became a doctor 😀
    Manager: Interesting…

  52. I accidentally dropped my pizza on the floor and it passed the 5 second rule so…I think it’s safe to eat?

  53. Doctor, thank you so much for breaking these things down for us. Dealing with Gastritis here. I really appreciate this episode.

  54. The more I watch this the more I ask myself "how many cells are from myeloid cells?!"

  55. 14:22 Excuse me, but isn't cell wall only found in plant cell? I remember my teacher said that humans only have cell membranes like other animals and most protists…. I'm kinda confused rn lol

  56. So each “path” I take in life is simply a disease, no wonder my life isn’t going going as I wish.

  57. I like how they show basophil has a little umbrella because he's in an acidic environment lol

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